Question Types for Exams, Tests and Assessments

Question types are the fundamental elements of an assessment system. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation is only possible with the convenient use of well-suited question types.

Online Assessment Software
The questions are divided into many sub-types according to the content presented, how they are answered, how they are evaluated, what and how they measure, according to the assessment technique applied, and whether they are positioned as single or a group. Discover different question types, what they do, and their must-have features in the TestInvite assessment system.

In Assessment Systems, questions and question types are used to assess the competencies of the candidates. Candidates are asked questions in a specific test, personality inventory or exam format, and in line with the answers given, first assessment and then evaluation are carried out according to a predetermined system.

Different competencies can be measured more successfully and efficiently with different question types. Therefore, in assessment processes, multiple and different different question types suitable for the process are conducted. Using the question type suitable for the competency to be measured and making use of different question types suitable for the process makes the assessment process of a competency more valid and reliable.

Question types in Assessment Systems are determined according to five different approaches.

  1. Question types according to answering methods
  2. Question types according to the assessment method of the answers
  3. Question types according to the content presented
  4. Single and grouped question types
  5. Question types according to assessment technique

Question Types According to Answering Methods


The first approach used in determining the types of questions is to divide the questions into question types according to which method and how they are answered. So, rather than what we ask, how we want to get the answer (how the question is answered) determines the type of question.

A question can be answered in many different ways. Even if writing, speaking, choosing, ordering, matching are the most common answering methods, different answering methods are also used in computer-assisted assessment systems.

While the system provides the necessary assessment environment and tools for the candidate to create their own answer, on the other hand, it evaluates in what conditions and how successful the candidate will be, together with the information defined before the process, regarding the evaluation of the answer.

In this case, since the evaluation will be made by an objective criterion, impartiality is preserved. If an automatic evaluation criterion is not defined, the answers given are evaluated by an evaluator.

Multiple Choice Questions


In multiple choice questions, a number of options are given to the candidate. The candidate answers the question by choosing or making choices among these options. It can be structured in many different ways, such as a true-false question, multiple choice question with only one correct option and multiple choice question with multiple correct choices.

When creating multiple choice questions with the question editor, you can tick the 'shuffle choices' option to present by mixing the options.
When creating multiple choice questions with the question editor, you can tick the "shuffle choices" option to present by mixing the options.
The appearance of the sample question on the test taker screen
The appearance of the sample question on the test taker screen

In multiple-choice questions where more than one option can be selected, the options can be given weight, and gaining success can be ensured in proportion to the accuracy and weight of the selected options.

You see the question creation editor in the image. In this example question, you can set the minimum and maximum number of options that can be selected in the area shown with the rectangle, and you can set point weights according to the correctness and inaccuracy of the options in the areas that are crossed out and circled in red.
You see the question creation editor in the image. In this example question, you can set the minimum and maximum number of options that can be selected in the area shown with the rectangle, and you can set point weights according to the correctness and inaccuracy of the options in the areas that are crossed out and circled in red.

With multiple choice questions, the tendency of the candidate to different competencies can also be measured. For this, options are associated with trends.

With the questions in the example, you can separate the candidates who meet the criteria you are looking for according to their tendencies and choose the most suitable candidate for your team according to these tendencies and the scores obtained.
With the questions in the example, you can separate the candidates who meet the criteria you are looking for according to their tendencies and choose the most suitable candidate for your team according to these tendencies and the scores obtained.

Matching and Ranking Questions


In the matching, ranking questions the candidate is presented a number of items and options that can be matched to the items. By choosing one of the options given for each item, The candidate makes a matching or sorting and answers the question.

You can create many matching questions from easy to difficult.

Matching questions can be created with assessment system

You can create many matching questions from easy to difficult.

In this question type, in which the candidate matches each item with the options presented, each item can have its own unique options, or all items can have a common pool of options. In this case, the maximum number of items that an option can be matched with can be determined.

Some of the things you can do after the item indicated by the arrow is added to the question; By going to the 'Options Pool' tab, you can add the answer you want to match the item to the 'common option pool'. (Options Pool=Common Option Pool)
                                If there are options that you want to be shown only for this item while answering by matching, you can add them from here.
                                You can assign a correct answer to this item and determine how many items can be matched with, how many points will be given to the candidate when paired with which items.
Some of the things you can do after the item indicated by the arrow is added to the question;
  1. By going to the "Options Pool" tab, you can add the answer you want to match the item to the "common option pool". (Options Pool=Common Option Pool)
  2. If there are options that you want to be shown only for this item while answering by matching, you can add them from here.
  3. You can assign a correct answer to this item and determine how many items can be matched with, how many points will be given to the candidate when paired with which items.

Open-Ended Questions


In open-ended questions, an environment is provided and tools are for the candidate to create the answer to the question. It can be made to respond in many different ways, such as writing text, writing numbers, creating content, filling in the blanks in a given table, coding, recording your voice via microphone or video via the webcam attached to the device, uploading files, taking photos, recording your screen. Each answering method can be thought of as a different type of open-ended question.

Types of open-ended question that you can choose within the system

Types of open ended questions can be choosen within in the system

If the correctness or inaccuracy of the answers to open-ended questions can be determined automatically by a rule to be defined to the system, these questions are called Objective Open-Ended Question, and if not, Subjective Open-Ended Question. In subjective open-ended questions, the answers given must be evaluated by an evaluator.

Question answered by typing text

For write-questions, the candidate is provided with a short or long text writing area where he or she can write his answer. The candidate answers the question by typing his answer in the required field using his own keyboard or using a virtual keyboard provided by the application.

1-Long text writing area: It is used in questions such as article writing questions and paragraph writing questions where long articles should be written.
                                2-Short text writing area: It is used for write-questions that need to be answered with short sentences and answers.

Essay type and short answer type questions

  1. Long text writing area: It is used in questions such as article writing questions and paragraph writing questions where long articles should be written.
  2. Short text writing area: It is used for write-questions that need to be answered with short sentences and answers.

Predetermined restrictions can be defined to the answers that can be written. In this way, the candidate can only be compelled to give an appropriate response to the defined constraints.

Question answered by typing numbers

In number writing questions, the candidate is provided with a space to write the answer in numerals and numbers. The candidate answers the question by typing the number he or she thinks is correct using the numbers on his keyboard or using a virtual keyboard to be provided.

The virtual keyboard indicated by the arrow can be used for more complex questions, when the candidates are connected to the exam through different technological devices (tablet, etc.) or in case of problems with the keyboard of the candidates

Numerical questions can be answered by virtual keyboard

The virtual keyboard indicated by the arrow can be used for more complex questions, when the candidates are connected to the exam through different technological devices (tablet, etc.) or in case of problems with the keyboard of the candidates

Question answered by typing a mathematical equation, formula, or expression

A math editor is provided for the candidate to use while answering, and the candidate answers the question by typing the mathematical expression using the editor.

The test taker can open the math editor by clicking the icon in the rich text editor
The test taker can open the math editor by clicking the icon in the rich text editor.
The test taker can open a virtual keyboard by clicking on the icon pointed out by the arrow in the math editor and the test taker can write his/her answer as a mathematical expression.
The test taker can open a virtual keyboard by clicking on the icon pointed out by the arrow in the math editor and the test taker can write his/her answer as a mathematical expression.

The candidate can write a number consisting of numerals or a number with scientific notation.

In the images below, you can examine how the question looks on the candidate screen when the space that can be answered in both ways is activated.

The number consisting of numerals is written in the specified space and the question is answered.
The number consisting of numerals is written in the specified space and the question is answered.
By clicking the button next to the answer type indicated by the arrow, the scientific expression space is entered and the question is answered with a scientific expression.
By clicking the button next to the answer type indicated by the arrow, the scientific expression space is entered and the question is answered with a scientific expression.

Question answered by speaking

In speaking questions, a voice recording application is opened to the candidate where he/she can record his/her voice over a microphone attached to his/her device. The candidate answers the question by recording his/her voice for a while using the record and stop buttons on this application.

The candidate can start answering the question by speaking or stop recording
                                through the button indicated by the arrow.

Speaking questions can be answered by audio recording feature

The candidate can start answering the question by speaking or stop recording through the button indicated by the arrow.
  1. You can limit how long the recording can be, for the question in the image, this time is four minutes.
  2. You can determine how many times the candidate can try to record audio. The maximum number of trials for the question in the image is two.

It can be determined how many audio recording trials the candidate can make, and how long the total recording can be.

Question answered by recording video

For Video Interview questions, a camera recording application is opened to the candidate where he/she can record his/her own video via a webcam attached to his/her device. The candidate answers the question by recording the video footage using the save, stop buttons in this application.

A sample video interview question.

Video interview questions can be answered by video recording feature

A sample video interview question.
It can be determined how many video recording trials the candidate can make and how long the total recording can take.
It can be determined how many video recording trials the candidate can make and how long the total recording can take.

Question answered by uploading file

In file upload questions the candidate is asked to create a file in response to the question asked and is given a space to upload the file. After preparing the file, the candidate answers the question by uploading the file.

Candidate can upload the answer (file) given to the question to the system via the button indicated by the arrow.
Candidate can upload the answer (file) given to the question to the system via the button indicated by the arrow.

Question answered by writing code

For coding questions, a coding editor opens, where the candidate can write code. It is predetermined in which programming language it can respond. The candidate answers the question by typing the necessary codes using the coding editor.

The coding space that will appear in front of the candidate.

Coding questions can be answered via coding editor

The coding space that will appear in front of the candidate.

Question answered by filling in a table

In table fill questions or tabular questions, the candidate is given a table in which its cubicles can update content values, and the candidate answers the question by filling the blanks in the table.

You can learn about the tendencies and preferences of the candidates by asking questions in the form of a questionnaire as in the image, or by asking many different kinds of questions, you can ask the candidates to answer the question by filling in the intersection points in the table columns and rows.
You can learn about the tendencies and preferences of the candidates by asking questions in the form of a questionnaire as in the image, or by asking many different kinds of questions, you can ask the candidates to answer the question by filling in the intersection points in the table columns and rows.

Question answered by taking a Photo or Screenshot

For photographing questions, the candidate is presented with an application that can save a photo or screenshot and upload it as an answer. The question is answered by taking a photo or saving a snapshot via the webcam on your device.

By taking a photo with a webcam or a different camera, The candidate can upload a photo of her/his work as an answer.
By taking a photo with a webcam or a different camera, the candidate can upload a photo of their work as an answer.

Types of Questions According to the Evaluation Method of Answers


Another approach that can be applied in determining the types of questions in Assessment Systems is to divide the questions into types according to how the answers given to the questions will be evaluated. According to this criterion, we can divide the questions into 2 main groups:

Objective type questions


In objective type questions, the answers given by the candidates to the questions are evaluated automatically by the assessment system and in complete impartiality by computer algorithms according to predetermined rules. This way, impartiality, equality and objectivity are ensured at the highest level.

Multiple choice questions, matching and sorting questions, are examples of objective type questions. In these types of questions, the system can evaluate the given answer in an impartial and automatic way, since the information about which options, matching and rankings are correct can be defined in advance to the system.

Questions such as filling in the blanks, answering by writing short text, answering by writing numbers which are among, open-ended questions, can also be structured objectively because clear rules can be defined for the answers that can be given. The assessment system can make an objective true/false evaluation by comparing the text written in the answer with the correct answer defined in the system.

As seen in this example of an English exam question, the assessment administrator has defined a clear answer for automatic evaluation.

Objective type questions can be easily created by the assessment software

As seen in this example of an English exam question, the assessment administrator has defined a clear answer for automatic evaluation.

The sample question for which we see the predetermined correct answer is:

Which of these elements is the most electronegative?

The fact that it is not in need of human evaluation and therefore can be evaluated instantly and effortlessly by the assessment system provides both speed and convenience, cost advantage, and an impartial , evaluation by avoiding the subjectivity of human evaluations. Thanks to these features, the most frequently applied, most valid and reliable tests, exams and inventories in the world consist of objective type questions.

The disadvantage of objective type questions is that they may be insufficient in measuring some competencies. The use of objective type questions does not bring success, especially in measuring competencies that require creativity. Many qualities such as being a good copywriter, making beautiful pictures, being persuasive, being consistent, and being reliable cannot be measured using objective type questions or can be measured with very indirect methods, but their validity is low. These qualifications are subjective in nature, meaning that their evaluation cannot be bound by a rule and each evaluator may evaluate them differently.

Subjective type questions


The answers given by the candidate cannot be evaluated automatically by the assessment system. All answers are evaluated individually by one or more evaluators. Therefore, it may harbor serious problems and inequalities in terms of impartiality and consistency.

It is recommended that evaluators use predetermined standard evaluation criteria in order to avoid the negative effects of subjective type questions. On the other hand, negativities can be reduced to some extent by using methods in which a given answer is evaluated by more than one evaluator. However, in any case, the evaluation of subjective questions lags behind objective type questions in terms of impartiality and equality.

Since the answers given to the subjective type questions have to be evaluated individually by the evaluators, these processes are slower and their costs are high. Despite all these disadvantages, the use of subjective type questions is very important in the measurement of some competencies. For example, to measure English Speaking proficiency, a question may be asked that the candidate can answer by speaking. The answer given can be evaluated by the evaluator adhering to the predetermined evaluation criteria.

An example of a question that requires subjective assessment and can measure the test taker's English speaking proficiency.

Subjective type questions can be easily created by the editor

An example of a question that requires subjective assessment and can measure the test taker's English speaking proficiency.

Questions answered by writing long texts, questions answered by speaking, questions answered by creating a file are highly subjective type questions. The measurement of the success of the answers will not be determined automatically by the assessment system, and one or more evaluators will have to score the answers. Although applications in which some artificial-intelligence algorithms try to evaluate such answers, or at least position the evaluator as a supporting element, no real success has been achieved yet.

On the other hand, not all open-ended questions have to be subjective. As we have exemplified before under the heading of objective type questions, questions answered by writing numbers, filling in the blanks, questions answered by writing short text can be structured in objective type question form, as they can be evaluated automatically with predetermined rules.

Question Types According to the Content Presented


During the preparation of the question, auxiliary materials such as pictures, reading pieces, listening pieces, videos and files on which the question will be built can be used.

Reading Questions


A reading text is given with the question and the question is structured through this reading piece. The candidate first reads the given content, then answers the question asked over the content.

The reading text attached to the question with the 'Sidebar' feature and the reading question to be answered.

Reading comprehension questions cen be easily created by the question creating editor

The reading text attached to the question with the "Sidebar" feature and the reading question to be answered.

Listening Questions


Along with the question, an audio recording that can be listened to is given and the question is asked through this listening piece. The candidate first listens to the audio recording given, and then answers the question based on the piece he/she has listened to.

Audio recording and view of the sample question that needs to be answered from the candidate screen.

Listening questions can be answered by using audio recording feature

Audio recording and view of the sample question that needs to be answered from the candidate screen.
Whether the candidate has permissions to stop the audio recording and skip back and forth while listening can be predetermined.
Whether the candidate has permissions to stop the audio recording and skip back and forth while listening can be predetermined.

Video Watching Questions


Along with the question, a video that can be watched is given and the question is structured through this video content. The candidate first watches the video recording given, then answers the question through the video he watched.

View of video watching questions from the candidate screen.
View of video watching questions from the candidate screen.

The number of times the candidate can watch the video and whether he/she is allowed to jump back and forth while watching can be determined in advance.

File Analysis Questions


Along with the question, a file is presented to the candidate which they can download to his/her device. The candidate first downloads the file, analyses it, and answers the question.

You can upload many data sets from simple to complex to the system and request candidates to perform various analyses.
You can upload many data sets from simple to complex to the system and request candidates to perform various analyses.

Mathematical Equation and Formula Questions


Along with the question, a mathematical equation or formula created with the math editor is given and the candidate answers the question through the equation.

A sample mathematical equation question and an answer space that the candidate can answer with scientific input
A sample mathematical equation question and an answer space that the candidate can answer with scientific input

Single and Grouped Question Types


A question can be structured on its own, or it can be positioned within a group of questions.

Single Questions


Single questions consist of only 1 question and all the auxiliary content needed to answer the question is included in the question. As an example, you might consider a single multiple-choice question asked through a listening passage.

A preview of the candidate screen view of the listening piece and sample question.
A preview of the candidate screen view of the listening piece and sample question.

Grouped Questions


In grouped questions, many questions are grouped together with one or more content. As an example, you can consider a reading passage and 2 multiple-choice questions that follow the reading text.

You can group your questions and content by creating content groups. The candidate will face the questions as in the image.
You can group your questions and content by creating content groups. The candidate will face the questions as in the image.

In grouped questions, the questions may lose their meaning when separated from the content. That's why grouped questions are often included in a grouped exam, test, or inventory.

Examiners can create grouped questions and their contents by clicking the 'content groups' button indicated by an arrow on the question bank screen.
Examiners can create grouped questions and their contents by clicking the "content groups" button indicated by an arrow on the question bank screen.

Question Types According to Measurement Technique


We can divide the questions into 2 main groups according to what and how a question measures.

Success Questions


In success questions, the answer to the question can be true or false. If the candidate gave the most correct answer to the question, he/she can get full points, if he/she gave an incomplete answer, partial points, and if he/she gave the wrong answer, he/she can get zero or negative points. In success questions, the candidate answers the question in order to get the maximum success score from the question.

As seen in the example, you can match the answer you want with the points you want while shaping the questions and have the candidate's score automatically calculated by the system in this way.
As seen in the example, you can match the answer you want with the points you want while shaping the questions and have the candidate's score automatically calculated by the system in this way.

The points to be obtained by answering the success questions affect the total success score obtained from the test or exam and the section success score obtained from the section in which the question is located.

Success Questions Associated With Dimension

Success questions can be associated with one or more dimensions. If a question is associated with a dimension, with the success gained from the question the dimension success score being associated with is also affected.

For example, if you associate a question with the "Rooted Expressions" dimension, the success to be obtained from the question will affect the test and section score, as well as the "Rooted Expressions Dimension Success Score".

As a result of associating the questions with the dimensions, it is possible to measure many dimensions from an exam.

Tendency Questions

The purpose of the tendency questions is to make a measurement of the candidate's tendency based on the answer given to the question. According to the answer given, a measurement is made of which orientation the candidate is closer to. Unlike Success questions, Tendency Questions do not have right and wrong answers.

Tendency questions are generally used in personality tests and competency evaluation inventories.

An example of questions that have no true or false answers, where you can measure the personality tendencies of the staff you are looking for.
An example of questions that have no true or false answers, where you can measure the personality tendencies of the staff you are looking for.

Conclusion


In the TestInvite assessment system, question types are handled from many different perspectives. From the contents to be included in the preparation of the question, to the method of answering; from positioning the questions in groups, to evaluating the answers; It is possible to configure questions in many areas, from calculating success scores to measuring sub-dimensions and tendencies.

TestInvite provides all necessary question types together to manage an accurate, valid and comprehensive assessment process. You can get detailed information about usage by watching our video tutorials, you can start using the system and try the usage by opening a free account, or you can request an online demo from our experts.

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Explore the question types TestInvite offers and design your own assessments